Ethical statements

Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) when submitting a paper. Any manuscript submitted without the relevant statement(s) will be returned to the authors and will not be considered further until an explicit statement is included.

1. Articles relying on clinical trials should quote the trial registration number at the end of the abstract.

2. All submitted manuscripts containing research which involves identifiable human subjects (including donors of cells or tissues) must include a statement confirming that consent was obtained for all identifiable individuals and that any identifiable individuals are aware of intended publication. In order to protect participant anonymity, authors do not need to send proof of this consent to us at IOP Publishing.

3. All submitted manuscripts containing research which involves human participants and/or animal experimentation must include a statement confirming that it was carried out in accordance with the principles outlined in our ethical policy and identifying the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee, along with approval number/ID.